The following valuation parameters and potential risks apply to all financial instruments recommended in the respective financial analyses/investment research produced and distributed by CM Research.

Unless otherwise stated in the text of the financial analysis/investment research, target prices in the publication are based on either a discounted cash flow valuation and/or comparison of valuation ratios with companies seen by the analyst as comparable or a combination of the two methods. The result of this fundamental valuation is adjusted to reflect the analyst's views on the likely course of investor sentiment.

Whichever valuation method is used there is a significant risk that the target price will not be achieved within the expected timeframe. Risk factors include unforeseen changes in competitive pressures or in the level of demand for the company's products. Such demand variations may result from changes in technology, in the overall level of economic activity or, in some cases, from changes in social values. Valuations may also be affected by changes in taxation, in exchange rates and, in certain industries, in regulations. Investment in overseas markets and instruments such as ADRs can result in increased risk from factors such as exchange rates, exchange controls, taxation, political and social conditions. This discussion of valuation methods and risk factors is not comprehensive.